Eg. The short name of the element is called symbol. Radicals (ions) are atoms or group of atoms which carry positive or negative charge and behave as a single unit during a chemical reaction. The Latin name for mercury, hydrargyrum, means "liquid silver." 1. A lithium atom has one outer shell electron, so it’s usual valence is +1, but it can lose the electron and have a valence of -1. document.writeln('